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New Testament



Hebrews, Aramaic, Greek are what the new testament has been written in.

Anything else is a translation and is interpreted.


In the beginning = Breshith (Hebrew)

Resh means head

         Above all else

Beginning, first, authority


Living Bible is paraphrased  - not a translation - do not bring to class.





E ducation = movement - motion

Duc = Pull or draw

Movement = knowledge to confusion - clarity


We need to first look at the time between the old and new 150 - 400 years.

There is a gap, what happened.

Christians have old and new testaments

3 events take place


1) Split judism

2) Development of Christ/Messiah (Hebrew)

                               Christ =Greek = christos

3) Roman Oppression


We will first look at Judism


Torah - Hebrew (Law) better translated as teaching NOT law.

How we live - how we show we are greatful


10 Commandments the way people gave thanks for being brought out of bondage


Note:  Rabbis interpretations of Torah - Scholars

            Scribes - take down notes

                        Tradition of the Elders (TOE)

                        TALMUD (GAMORAH)

Most people during this time saw no need for reading, couldn’t afford to write because materials were expensive so the scholars interpreted the TORAH.

They did it in groups of more than one person to do the interpreting.  Voted on issues.


SADDUCCEES = TORAH only = Tradition of Elders - holding no authority

Didn’t believe in Resurrection



Note: TORAH = First 5 books and all in Hebrew


PHARASSEES = Torah all important

                             Elders being also important

                             Believe in resurrection

                             Cooperate w/Romans as long as they don’t interfere w/TORAH teachings


ZEALOTS =       Torah all important

                             Elders being also important

                             STRONG belief of resurrection

                             Hated ROMANS

                             Looking for leader, anointed one


Zealots were destroyed.  They migrated to a single location and Romans marched on them and destroyed almost all of them.  Some escaped to ISRAEL and went to a mountain Masada they went to the top and through sticks and stones and dead bodies on the ROMANS and eventually it became peaceful and when the ROMANS got to the top they found that the ZEALOTS remaining did a mass suicide.



New Testament Notes

Greek Christos


Annointed one/chosen one



2) Development of Christ/Messiah (Hebrew) Moshiach))

Crosses were a                   vs                           the first one is less comfortable and the head bobs around.


Crucifixion was for rebels against Rome.  This would mostly be the Zealots.

Normally stoning would be in order for capital punishment.  It was the highest form and somewhat Private.  Crucifixion was very public on top of a hill.

“cleptor” is Greek for thief.  The two men on the cross were not thief’s.  The bible doesn’t say thief or cleptor.  They probably were rebels hence reason for being crucified.


ZEOLOTS = established a battle cry which was used by Jesus “take up your cross”.  Jesus said if you follow me, take up your cross.  Some of Jesus’ disciples could have been Zealots.


David = greatest king – these were considered the Golden ages – don’t know you had one till its gone.


Olive Oil = symbolic – very powerful symbol – plant grape vines for grapes and the following year they will produce.  Plant an Olive tree, it produces in 50 years.  So for your kids you plant an Olive tree, and although care is given to both the Olive Tree is symbolic for the kids and the future.


            1st Samuel – picked David – anoints him on the head with olive oil – chosen by God – for all generations (anointed one) chosen 1st Messiah, Jesus is referred as son of David.


When David was king for 40 years his kingdom went down hill/declined.

Solomon tore down the kingdom and wasn’t too smart as a king.


Isaiah Ch9

People needed someone like David “the Moshiach.

Messiah lasted forever

Shalom(Hebrew) = Prince of Peace / Harmony / well being

Remember Hebrew words had one word with many meanings/concepts.

The Moshiach will bring Shalom


Description of the age of Moshiach


Zachariah                    Moshiach will enter David city on back of donkey


Serians, Babylon, etc… Romans they are oppressed and the idea between old – new testament seeing Messiah as a warrior vs peach maker.  One word from his mouth.

God said created the heavens & earth.  No need to raise Army. But Jesus would not ride on a donkey but a horse.  Horse were strong symbols.


Zealots wanted a warrior

Mat, Mk, Lk always asked if he is Christo and Jesus never answers yes or no.   

These were dangerous times

They thought if they had Jesus arrested, what would he do? Fight?  He tells Peter I have only to say a word and my father would send 12 legions of angels.


3)      Roman Oppression & Domination

The Mediterranean Sea is loaded with trade ships attracting thieves.  Trade decreased due to the risk.

Romans brought stability

Even you don’t like them but you can benefit.




Peace brought about by Romans

Good for the upper class


East shore – Palestine – Jewish people place of Jesus and where old and New Testament written.

Give the religion to people called “Emperor Workship” Jews didn’t  like it.

Once a year – the people were supposed to throw incense in a fire on the emperor’s birthday and worship ceasar as “Lord”.  The rest of the time you can honor who you want. 

The Torah says thou shalt not have any other God before me.

Christians are also refusing and stand at the altar saying “Jesus is Lord”.



Latin for Philestines

UN     no God Christians/Jewish – this is where we get the word atheis.  But here they were called this because they refused to worship Caesar as God.


The Jewish peoples land was called Palestine.  This made the Jews mad because it goes back to David and Goliath.  Goliath was a Philistine.  Arch enemy of Israel.  To call their land after their archenemy honors the enemy as if they were still alive.


Jewish people didn’t like the name of their land.

Soldiers breast plates – Pig – those soldiers assigned to Palestine had a pig (unclean animal) on their breastplate and they did the same thing with their flags.


Roman’s pushed the Jewish peoples buttons.





Romans sent troops into Judea - more uprising - more soldiers, costs rose in order to pay for the Army and soldiers.  In order for the Romans to pay for this, they taxed the Jews.  Ironically the Jews were paying for the torment the Roman's were putting them through.  The Taxes were collected by Tax collectors and they were despised by everyone.  They were comparable to child molesters today.  Tax collectors were traitors of the Jewish people and they would steal some of the money for themselves.   So when they speak of Jesus hanging out with prostitutes and tax collectors he was truly hanging with a bad group of folks.


Judea was hard to govern and very violent times.  Herod was a Jew and people who were called Herrodians were those that tried to make peace with the Romans by indicating they could govern themselves.  Romans agreed but threatened if they didn't succeed heads would roll so to speak.

Jews didn’t see Herod as a king so this of course back fired.  Herod had no lineage. 

In Mathew you find the story of Herod and the birth and wise men.  Herod knew of the birth and became worried when the Wisemen came to him.  Needless to say they didn’t return back to Herod with the news of where Jesus was.


Judaism you get two forms of Christianism.  Its how they see him as Prophet/Teacher.


The 4 books tried to answer - "Who was Jesus?

Teacher? Healer? Moral Authority (remember the tax collectors)  Plenty teachers and healers so who was Jesus.  New testament tries to address this.

They finally asked - Who is Jesus.  With it being IS vs WAS, they deal with the resurrection.

Although dead, he is alive, was is past tense and he is still with us.


Greek = EUGGAELLION - two g 2nd g is an N and this is where we get Evangelism which means spreading of good news.


There are 30 gospels and they are referred as lost however they are not lost just not put in the Bible.


4 best answer as to who Jesus is.  They are not BIOs because the story is not over.


Mt - Matthew and is over the all Jesus as Rightful King and right off shows Jesus's lineage.

Mk - Mark Son of Man (couple of ironies) this can have two separate meanings. 1) heavenly being and 2) ordinary person.

Lk - Luke Jesus as a rebel - Luke is a rebel.  Luke is the most popular due to his story telling ask anyone there favorite stories and they come out of Luke.

            Luke really wrote Luke and wrote Acts.

Jn - John Jesus is God incarnate, beloved disciple and not sure who wrote the book.